Portillo-Torres, L.A.; Bernardino-Nicanor, A.; Gómez-Aldapa, C.A.; González-Montiel, S.; Rangel-Vargas, E.; Villagómez-Ibarra, J.R.; González-Cruz, L.; Cortés-López, H.; Castro-Rosas, J. Hibiscus Acid and Chromatographic Fractions from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyces: Antimicrobial Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria. Antibiotics, 8 (2019) 218. doi:10.3390/antibiotics8040218
The anti-microbial properties of acetone extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces, fractions isolated by silica gel chromatography and hibiscus acid purified from some of these fractions and additionally identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mid-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were studied against both multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains and pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. Gel diffusion was used to determine the anti-microbial effects. The mode of action of hibiscus acid was determined by crystal violet assay. Hibiscus acid and 17 of the 25 chromatographic fractions obtained, displayed an anti-microbial effect against all bacterial strains tested. Hibiscus acid showed a greater anti-microbial effect than the acetone extract against most of the bacteria strains, while chromatographic fractions IX?XIV exerted the greatest anti-microbial effect against all bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the acetone extract was 7 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 10 mg/mL, while the corresponding values for hibiscus acid were 4?7 and 7 mg/mL, respectively. The results of the crystal violet assay indicate that hibiscus acid alters membrane permeability. Hibiscus acid is a potential alternative to control multidrug-resistant bacteria. Due to its ready availability and easy extraction from H. sabdariffa, hibiscus acid is potentially useful in the food industries.