Xochitl Tovar-Jiménez, José Caro-Corrales, Carlos A. Gómez-Aldapa, José Zazueta-Morales, Víctor Limón Valenzuela, Javier Castro-Rosas, Juan Hernández-Ávila, Ernesto Aguilar-Palazuelos. 2015. Third generation snacks manufactured from orange by products: physicochemical and nutritional characterization. J Food Sci Technol. 52 (10):6607-6614. DOI. 10.1007/s13197-015-1726-2.
A mixture of orange vesicle flour, commercial nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch was extruded using a Brabender Laboratory single screw extruder (2:1 L/D). The resulting pellets were expanded by microwaves. Expansion index, bulk density, penetration force, carotenoid content, and dietary fiber were measured for this third-generation snack and optimum production conditions were estimated. Response surface methodology was applied using a central composite rotatable experimental design to evaluate the effect of moisture content and extrusion temperature. Temperature mainly affected the expansion index, bulk density and penetration force, while carotenoids content was affected by moisture content. Surface overlap was used to identify optimum processing conditions: temperature: 128?130 C; moisture content: 22?24 %. Insoluble dietary fiber decreased and soluble dietary fiber increased after extrusion.