L. E. Rebolledo-Perales, G. A. Álvarez Romero, I. S. Ibarra-Ortega, C. A. Galán-Vidal and I. Pérez-Silva. Review?Electrochemical Determination of Heavy Metals in Food and Drinking Water Using Electrodes Modified with Ion-Imprinted Polymers. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2021, 168, 067516
Due to the concern about the health damage caused by the consumption of food and water contaminated by highly toxic heavy metals, the quantification of these chemical species has led research fields, such as material science and electrochemistry, to develop new analytical methodologies for the determination of these contaminants even at trace levels. In this sense, the use of ion-imprinted polymers for the surface modification of electrodes has improved the sensitivity and selectivity of methodologies for the electrochemical detection of metals due to the specific molecular recognition capability of the polymer. This strategy allows the design of low-cost, sensitive, precise, and accurate electroanalytical methodologies with excellent selectivity when used in the analysis of complex samples. This review discusses recent advances in the development of electroanalytical methodologies based on ion-imprinted polymers for their application in the determination of heavy metals in food and drinking water samples. Topics about the monomers used for the synthesis of the ion-imprinted polymers, their influence on the polymer characteristics, the electrode modification procedure, the electrode composition, and the electrochemical analysis conditions used are addressed.