Molina, M. M., Moreno-Armendariz, M. A., & Seck-Tuoh-Mora, J. C. (2013). On the spatial dynamics and oscillatory behavior of a predator-prey model based on cellular automata and local particle swarm optimization. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 336, 173-184.
A two-dimensional lattice model based on Cellular Automata theory and swarm intelligence is used to study the spatial and population dynamics of a theoretical ecosystem. It is found that the social interactions among predators provoke the formation of clusters, and that by increasing the mobility of predators the model enters into an oscillatory behavior.